The Science

Photobiomodulation or Light Therapy and Laser Therapy have thousands of studies delving into how the photons of energy interact with the body.

Quick Summary:

Laser and Light Therapy work by increasing ATP (adenosine triphosphate) synthesis in the mitochondria, activating the electron transport system, and many other biochemical and biophysical reactions in the tissue.

Optimal Wavelengths

Energy radiation varies from Gamma rays on one end of the spectrum and radio waves on the other as shown in Figure 1. Light Therapy devices work at many different wavelengths. There is considered a “THERAPEUTIC WINDOW” that is optimal for different purposes. For Light Therapy to increase circulation and treat pain, muscle spasms, arthritis etc., that window is basically between 600 nm and 1200 nm as shown in Figure 2.



optical therapeutic graph


Therapeutic Window is roughly from 600 nm to 1200 nm. In this band light energy can penetrate tissue that is rich in water content. Not all wavelengths have equal penetration capabilities.

The energy needs to pass through the skin, melanin, water and hemoglobin. Then, it can be absorbed by bones, muscles, tendons, nerves, and ligaments.

The exception are blue wavelengths (400nm to 470nm) which tend to only penetrate the layers of the skin. These wavelengths are intrinsically anti-microbial rather than therapeutic.

Benefits of Light Therapy for pain and improved circulation

light therapy

How Does Light Therapy Work?

Light Therapy works by increasing ATP (adenosine triphosphate) synthesis in the mitochondria, activating the electron transport system, and many other biochemical and biophysical reactions in the tissue.

light therapy

Decades of research have found that certain wavelengths of light within the red and infrared bands can be beneficial to living tissue.

  • The light triggers the release of nitric oxide from blood vessels and red blood cells.
  • Nitric oxide causes local vasodilation that lasts several hours after the therapy session has ended.
  • Vasodilation significantly improves blood flow.
  • Improving blood flow promotes positive change in patients, lessens pain and helps nerves
    to begin to carry sensations again.

Biological Effects of the Laser in Detail


Laser therapy has an anti-edema effect, causing vasodilation, activation of the lymphatic drainage system (drains swollen areas). Resulting in the reduction of swelling from bruising or inflammation.

Improved Nerve Function

Laser light increases the process of nerve cell reconnection. Increases the amplitude of action potentials, the human body’s own mechanisms of actions to optimize nerve regeneration.

Accelerated Tissue Repair and Cell Growth

Photons of light from lasers penetrate deeply into tissue accelerating cellular reproduction/growth. Laser light increases the intake ability of the cells enabling quicker absorption of nutrients while eliminating waste products.

Trigger Points and Acupuncture Points

Laser therapy dramatically stimulates muscle trigger points / acupuncture points non-invasively providing musculoskeletal pain relief.


Laser light has a direct effect on immunity status by stimulation of immunoglobulin and lymphocytes. Laser Therapy is absorbed by chromophores (molecule enzymes) that react to laser light. The enzyme flavomono-nucleotide is activated enabling production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a major carrier of cell energy and the energy source for all chemical reactions in the cells.

Anti-Pain (Analgesic)

Laser therapy has highly beneficial effects on nerve cells, blocking pain signals transmitted to the brain, decreasing nerve sensitivity and inflammation. Less edema, less pain. Production of pain killing chemicals such as endorphins and enkephalins from the brain and adrenal gland are increased.

Increased Metabolic Activity

Laser therapy creates increased output of specific enzymes and increased oxygen for blood cells.Reduced Fibrous Tissue Formation (Scars) Laser therapy reduces the formation of scar tissue following tissue damage from cuts, scratches, burns, surgery and much more.

Improved Vascular Activity

Laser light significantly increases formation of new capillaries in damaged tissue, accelerating the healing process while reducing scar tissue. Acceleration of angiogenesis, causing temporary vasodilation, an increase in the diameter of blood vessels.

Food and Drug Administration Cleared

Energia Medical Light Therapy products are FDA cleared for increasing circulation, pain relief, relaxation of muscles, relief from muscle spasms, aches/stiffness caused by Arthritis, wrinkle reduction and treatment of acne.

Laser Therapy products sold by Energia Medical are FDA cleared for pain relief, inflammation reduction and tissue repair.